Sabtu, 21 Mei 2011

LEBAH 2 - Sengat Lebah 1 - 蜂螫 - Bee Sting

LEBAH 2 - Sengat Lebah 1 - 蜂螫 - Bee Sting





MENGAPA LEBAH MATI SETELAH MENYENGAT?


Bahwasanya lebah (lebah pekerja) seringkali menyengat orang. Oleh karena itulah maka lebah sangat ditakuti orang. Namun sebenarnya lebah tidak segera menyengat begitu saja, kecuali dalam keadaan terpaksa, karena menyengat itu akan membawa maut baginya.

Dalam keadaan bagaimanakah lebah itu baru menyengat orang?
Lebah tidak menyukai warna hitam, juga bau minuman keras, bawang, brambang dan sebagainya, maka apabila Anda mendekatinya dengan mengenakan pakaian berwarna hitam, atau bila mulut Anda berbau arak, bawang atau berambang, anda akan menanggung resiko disengat olehnya. Selain itu, seperti halnya dengan binatang lainnya, lebah mempunyai naluri atau insting membela diri, maka jika Anda memukulnya, mungkin Anda akan disengatnya juga.

Mengapa lebah itu mati setelah menyengat?

Di tembereng terakhir pada badan belakang lebah pekerja terdapat sebuah lubang tempat tersembunyinya alat menyengat. Sengat itu runcing sekali dan mempunyai banyak kait, dan pipa sengat itu berlubang di dalamnya. Di dalam badan belakang lebah itu terdapat sebuah kelenjar bisa yang dapat mengeluarkan cairan berbisa yang dialirkannya melalui lubang sengat ke dalam luka yang ditimbulkan oleh sengatan tadi. Bisa itu menimbulkan rasa sakit di dalam luka. Waktu sengat itu ditarik ke luar sehabis menyengat, alat itu akan terkoyak dari badan belakang dan bersamaan dengan itu sebagian jeroan atau isi perutnya pun ikut tertarik ke luar oleh karena kait sengat itu melekat demikian kencang dan eratnya dengan kulit manusia. Luka parah itu tidak dapat sembuh, dengan demikian lebah itu niscaya akan menemui ajalnya. Maka dari itu pada umumnya lebah tidak akan sembarangan menyengat orang. Akan tetapi, apabila lebah itu menyengat serangga yang berkulit keras sekalipun, sengatnya dapat ditarik ke luar dari luka yang ditimbulkannya dengan selamat.

http://cognitiobrevis.blogspot.com/2011/04/mengapa-lebah-mati-setelah-menyengat.html


AWAS DISENGAT LEBAH


Lebah, salah satu hewan sosial yang bekerja keras, lebah madu memiliki kolompok yang didalamnya memiliki fungsi dan tugas masing-masing. Dalam kehidupannya, lebah di ”persenjatai” dengan sengat. Bagaimana lebah menggunakan sengatnya itu? Benarkah lebah akan mati setelah ”menyengat”? Benarkah manusia dapat ”memanfaatkan” sengat itu? Bukankah justru itu berbahaya dan mamatikan?

Perlu diingat, sengat itu hanya ada pada lebah pekerja (betina), kamu tau khan bahwa dalam kelompok lebah itu ada tiga golongan : lebah Ratu, lebah jantan, dan lebah pekerja (betina). Nah, sengat pada tubuh lebah pekerja ini hanya bisa digunakan satu kali, artinya saat lebah menyengat, itulah akhir hidup nya. Lebah pekerja akan mati setelah menyengat.
 Sengat lebah terhubung dengan kelenjar di bagian perut lebah, dan saat menyengat sengat dan kantung racunnya itu tertinggal, sehingga akan terus memompa racuk ke ”korban”nya (inilah yang menyebabkan lebah mati setelah menyengat)
Jika kebetulan kamu tersengat lebah, jangan panik, kamu bisa segera usap sengatan di kulit kamu dengan daun babadotan, atau jawer kotok yang diremas-remas terlebih dahulu hingga keluar airnya.

Selain berbahaya, sengat lebah juga ternyata bermanfaat bagi manusia. Penyakit darah tinggi, rheumatik, dan ashma, bisa disembuhkan oleh sengatan lebah yang dilakukan pada titik-titk tertentu, yang tentu saja harus dilakukan oleh orang yang tahu dan ahli.

Nah berikut tindakan yang perlu kamu lakukan jika ingin menghindari sengatan lebah :
  1. Jika kamu kebetulah berada di alam terbuka yang banyak lebahnya, kenakan pakaian yang menutupi anggota tubuh kamu, misal lengan panjang, celana panjang.
  2. Tidak menggunakan wewangian,parfum, yang berbau menyengat, karena ini menarik perhatian lebah.
  3. Pakaian bercorak terang dan bunga-bunga akan juga menarik perhatian lebah
  4. jangan membuang sisa makanan (terutama yang manis) semarangan, kumpulkan jadi satu dan buang dalam wadah tertutup.
  5. Jika kebatulan kamu didatangi lebah, jangan melakukan gerakan yang ”mengancam” lebah tersebut, yang justru membuat lebah menjadi lebih agresif, menghindarlah dengan tenang.
Begitulah, kamu semakin paham dan tahu sedikit tentang lebah khan? Ayo diskusikan dengan teman dan guru kamu.***

http://b0cah.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=274&Itemid=40 


Bee sting - 蜂螫 - Sengat Lebah


A bee sting is strictly a sting from a bee (honey bee, bumblebee, sweat bee, etc). In the vernacular it can mean a sting of a bee, wasp, hornet, or yellow jacket. Some people may even call the bite of a horse-fly a bee sting. The stings of most of these species can be quite painful, and are therefore an object of dread for many people.
Bee stings differ from insect bites, and the venom or toxin of stinging insects is quite different. Therefore, the body's reaction to a bee sting may differ significantly from one species to another.
The most aggressive stinging insects are vespid wasps (including bald-faced hornets and other yellow jackets) but not hornets in general (e.g., the European hornet is gentle). All of these insects aggressively defend their nests.
In people who are allergic to bee stings, a sting may trigger a dangerous anaphylactic reaction that is potentially deadly. Honey bee stings release pheromones that prompt other nearby bees to attack.

 Honey bee stings

A honey bee that is away from the hive foraging for nectar or pollen will rarely sting, except when stepped on or roughly handled. Honey bees will actively seek out and sting when they perceive the hive to be threatened, often being alerted to this by the release of attack pheromones (below).
Although it is widely believed that a worker honey bee can sting only once, this is a partial misconception: although the stinger is in fact barbed so that it lodges in the victim's skin, tearing loose from the bee's abdomen and leading to its death in minutes, this only happens if the skin of the victim is sufficiently thick, such as a mammal's. The bee's sting is speculated to have evolved for inter-bee combat between members of different hives, and the barbs serve to improve penetration of the chitinous plates of another insect's exoskeleton. When bees sting elastic-skinned mammals, the barbs become a hazard to the bees as described above. Honey bees are the only hymenoptera with a strongly barbed sting, though yellow jackets and some other wasps have small barbs.
The sting's injection of apitoxin into the victim is accompanied by the release of alarm pheromones, a process which is accelerated if the bee is fatally injured. Release of alarm pheromones near a hive or swarm may attract other bees to the location, where they will likewise exhibit defensive behaviors until there is no longer a threat, typically because the victim has either fled or been killed. (Note: A true swarm is not hostile; it has deserted its hive and has no comb or young to defend.) These pheromones do not dissipate or wash off quickly, and if their target enters water, bees will resume their attack as soon as it leaves the water.
The larger drone bees, the males, do not have stings. The female worker bees are the only ones that can sting, and their stinger is a modified ovipositor. The queen bee has a smooth stinger and can, if need be, sting skin-bearing creatures multiple times, but the queen does not leave the hive under normal conditions. Her sting is not for defense of the hive; she only uses it for dispatching rival queens, ideally before they can finish pupating. Queen breeders who handle multiple queens and have the queen odor on their hands are sometimes stung by a queen.
The main component of bee venom responsible for pain in vertebrates is the toxin melittin; histamine and other biogenic amines may also contribute to pain and itching.[1] In one of the medical uses of honey bee products, apitherapy, bee venom has been used to treat arthritis and other painful conditions.[2]


Bee sting. The stinger is torn off and left in the skin

2 minutes later

6 minutes later, after the stinger has been removed

227 minutes later

A bee sting 1 day after

The sting consists of three parts: a stylus and two barbed slides (or lancets), one on either side of the stylus. The bee does not push the sting in but it is drawn in by the barbed slides. The slides move alternately up and down the stylus so when the barb of one slide has caught and retracts it pulls the stylus and the other barbed slide into the wound. When the other barb has caught it also retracts up the stylus pulling the sting further in. This process is repeated until the sting is fully in and even continues after the sting and its mechanism is detached from the bee's abdomen.
When a honey bee stings a person, it cannot pull the barbed stinger back out. It leaves behind not only the stinger, but also part of its abdomen and digestive tract, plus muscles and nerves. This massive abdominal rupture is what kills the honey bee. Honey bees are the only species of bees to die after stinging.[3]

 Treatment

The first step in treatment following a bee sting is removal of the stinger itself. The stinger should be removed as fast as possible without regard to method: studies have shown the amount of venom delivered does not differ if the sting is pinched or scraped off and even a delay of a few seconds leads to more venom being injected.[4] Once the stinger is removed, pain and swelling should be reduced with a cold compress.[5]
Many traditional remedies have been suggested for bee stings including damp pastes of tobacco, salt, baking soda, meat tenderizer, toothpaste, clay, garlic, urine, onions, aspirin or even application of copper coins.[6][7]
Bee venom is acidic as it contains the highly acidic peptide melittin, and these interventions are often recommended to neutralize the venom; however, neutralizing a sting is unlikely to be effective as the venom is injected under the skin and deep into the tissues, where a topically applied alkali is unable to reach, so neutralization is unlikely to occur.[6] In any case, the amount of venom injected is typically very small (between 5 and 50 micrograms of fluid) and placing large amounts of alkali near the sting site is unlikely to produce a perfectly neutral pH to stop the pain.[6] Many people do claim benefit from these home remedies but it is doubtful they have any real physical effect on how much a sting hurts or continues hurting. The effect is probably related to rubbing the area or the mind perceiving benefit.[6] Furthermore, none of these interventions have been proven to be effective in scientific studies and a randomized trial of aspirin paste and topical ice packs showed that aspirin was not effective in reducing the duration of swelling or pain in bee and wasp stings, and significantly increased the duration of redness.[5] The study concluded that ice alone is better treatment for bee and wasp stings than aspirin.[5]
The sting may be painful for a few hours. Swelling and itching may persist for a week. The area should not be scratched as it will only increase the itching and swelling. If a reaction persists for over a week or covers an area greater than 7-10 cm (3 or 4 inches), medical attention should be sought. Doctors often recommend a tetanus immunization. For about 2 percent of people, anaphylactic shock from certain proteins in the venom can be life-threatening and requires emergency treatment.[8] If the victim is allergic to bee stings, the victim must be treated to prevent shock. People known to be highly allergic may carry around epinephrine in the form of a self-injectable EpiPen for the treatment of an anaphylactic shock.
For patients who experience severe or life threatening reactions to insect stings, researchers at Johns Hopkins have developed a series of allergy injections composed of increasing concentrations of naturally occurring venom which provide excellent and usually life-long protections against future insect stings.[9]

See also

 Footnotes

  1. ^ Meier J, White J. (1995). Clinical toxicology of animal venoms and poisons. CRC Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8493-4489-1.
  2. ^ Phillip Terc "Report about a Peculiar Connection Between the Bee stings and Rheumatism", 1888.
  3. ^ Urban Bee Gardens Urban Bee Legends - by Jaime Pawelek
  4. ^ Visscher P, Vetter R, Camazine S (1996). "Removing bee stings.". Lancet 348 (9023): 301–2. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)01367-0. PMID 8709689.
  5. ^ a b c Balit C, Isbister G, Buckley N (2003). "Randomized controlled trial of topical aspirin in the treatment of bee and wasp stings". J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 41 (6): 801–8. doi:10.1081/CLT-120025345. PMID 14677790.
  6. ^ a b c d Glaser, David. "Are wasp and bee stings alkali or acid and does neutralising their pH them give sting relief?". www.insectstings.co.uk. Retrieved 2007-05-03.
  7. ^ Beverly Sparks, "Stinging and Biting Pests of People" Extension Entomologist of the University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences Cooperative Extension Service.
  8. ^ Thor Lehnert, "Hymenopterous Insect Stings" Beekeeping in the United States - USDA - Agricultural HandBook Number 335.
  9. ^ Resiman, R (August 1994). "Insect Stings". New England Journal of Medicine 26 (8): 523–7. doi:10.1056/NEJM199408253310808. PMID 8041420.

 References

 External links


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bee_sting 


蜂螫

蜜蜂的尾巴有一根硬刺,这根刺连接着它身体里的内脏,这个会产生毒素的内脏,叫做「毒液腺」。当我们被蜜蜂螫咬后,毒液就会顺着这根刺,流进我们的身体里,造成螫伤的部位红肿、热痛,有时还会产生中毒现象,引起头晕、发烧、气喘和恶心等症状。
被蜜蜂螫时,为了减轻疼痛、避免发生中毒现象,可以在伤口部位,先把硬刺取出。如果伤口是在四肢,可以用绳子在伤口上方绑紧,防止毒液顺着血流流到别处,然后再用手或其他器具,将毒液从伤口挤出,等流出部分血水后,松开绳子,用浓肥皂水或碱水涂抹伤口,或是用氨水、小苏打水清洗伤口也可以,让酸性的毒液,被碱性液体所中和,这样伤口的症状就能稍微减轻了。一旦被虎头蜂、毒蝎或其他毒虫螫伤,也可先用这种方法作紧急处理,然后再送医治疗,才是安全且正确的方法。

http://baike.baidu.com/view/695093.htm 


Tips Mengatasi Sengatan Lebah

Adakalanya kita menjumpai seseorang disengat lebah/tawon atau mungkin kita sendiri mengalaminya.
Alat penyengat lebah (ovirpasitor) merupakan alat pertahanan pada bagian belakang tubuh lebah betina. Ketika lebah menyengat, alat penyengat dan kantung racun tertinggal (lebah madu yang mati setelah menyengat) di tubuh korban, adapula yang tidak tertinggal (golongan hymenoptera) dan dapat digunakan menyengat lagi.
Zat racun lebah (fosfolipase, histamin, hialuronidase, norepinefrin, mellitin) akan merangsang keluarnya histamin yang menimbulkan 2 jenis reaksi, yakni:

1. Gejala Lokal
  • Rasa terbakar dan nyeri di tempat sengatan
  • Pembengkakan (edema)
  • Gatal (urtikaria, pruritus)
  • Benjolan merah (eritematus)
2. Gejala Menyeluruh (sistemik) *0,4-0,8 %*
  • Merah (angioedema) dan gatal (urtikaria) seluruh tubuh
  • Pembengkakan saluran nafas yang dapat menimbulkan gangguan pernafasan
  • Syok anafilaktif.
Gejala yang menyeluruh (gejala sistemik) dapat menimbulkan reaksi berat bahkan fatal beberapa saat setelah mengalami sengatan.
Bagaimana menganggulanginya ? Berikut ini adalah Tips mengatasi sengatan lebah:

Untuk mengatasi gejala lokal:
  1. Kompres daerah sengatan menggunakan es (kantung es)
  2. Beri obat golongan antihistamin untuk menguragi gatal ( misalnya: loratadine 10 mg 1×1, Terfenadine 60 mg 2×1, mebhydrolin napadisilate 50 mg 3×1, chlorpheniramine maleate 4 mg 3×1, cetrizine diHCl 10 mg 1×1, fexofenadine HCl 60 mg 1×1, dll )
  3. Beri pereda sakit. Bila rasa sakit belum berkurang, dapat diberi suntikan lidokain 2% atau kombinasi lidokain 2% dan triamsinolon diasetat.
Untuk mengatasi gejala menyeluruh (sistemik).
  1. Beri suntikan epinefrin 0,3-0,5 cc secara subkutan (di bawah kulit) dan dapat diulang 10 menit jika diperlukan. Untuk kasus yang berat, suntikan dapat diulang selama beberapa hari.
  2. Beri kortikosteroid.
  3. Beri antihistamin. Dapat juga diberikan kombinasi kortikosteroid dan antihistamin.
  4. Desensitisasi. Langkah ini ditempuh untuk orang-orang yang dalam kesehariannya beresiko tersengat lebah, misalnya: para pekerja ternak lebah.

http://cakmoki86.wordpress.com/2008/02/12/tips-mengatasi-sengatan-lebah/  


Bee Legs and Stingers


Bee Venom
 

A bee's venom contains several substances that destroy cells. These include peptides and enzymes that break through and destroy the layer of fats lining each cell. The venom also destroys the skin's mast cells, which are part of the body's immune system. This releases histamine, which encourages blood vessels to dilate and allows immune cells to reach the sting site faster and neutralize the venom.

However, in people with bee sting
allergies, this process releases too much histamine. The blood vessels' dilation response is extreme, and they can no longer do their part in regulating blood pressure. As a result, blood pressure drops rapidly, and cells stop receiving oxygen. This type of anaphylactic shock also causes swelling and spasms and can lead to death. The typical treatment is an injection of epinephrine, which constricts the blood vessels, helping to restore blood pressure and oxygen delivery.

The legs have the same basic parts as other insect legs. Beginning with the part closest to the bee's body, they are the coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus. These parts act basically like the bee's hip, thigh, shin and foot, and tiny joints separate each segment. A bee's legs can also have several specialized structures, including:

  • Brush-, comb- and basket-like hairs for collecting pollen
  • A pad and claw for holding and manipulating objects
  • A small groove for removing pollen from the antenna
  • A press for packing pollen
The abdomen has almost no appendages, but it houses nearly all of the bee's internal organs. Passageways called spiracules allow the bee to breathe, and a network of tubes and tracheae carry oxygen into the bee's body. An aorta in the thorax pumps blood, or hemolymph, directly over the organs rather than through a system of vessels. Oxygen floats in the hemolymph without the use of red blood cells, so the fluid is colorless instead of red. The abdomen also holds a tube-like digestive system that includes a crop, or honey stomach, where the bee holds nectar.



A bee's abdomen does have one notable appendage -- the stinger, which is a modified ovipositor, or egg depositor. This stinger combines a poison sac with sharp lancets, which deliver the venom that the bee produces using its venom gland. Many scientists believe that bees inherited their venom from their wasp-like ancestors, used their ovipositors to lay their eggs in the bodies of other insects. Eventually, the substances that coated the ovipositor became venomous, which made it easier for prehistoric wasps to subdue prey.
Bees don't lay their eggs in meat, but they retain the ability to sting to defend themselves. However, some bees don't have stingers. Ovipositors are female reproductive organs, so male bees usually can't sting. There are also several species of stingless bees, which do not have stingers at all.

Several honeybee species have barbed stingers, which stick in the bodies of mammals, pulling out part of the bee's abdomen when she flies away. As a result, the bee dies. Bees with barbed stingers can often sting other insects without harming themselves. Queen honeybees and bees of many other species, including bumblebees and many solitary bees, have smooth stingers and can sting mammals repeatedly.

In addition to its venom, a bee produces a number of useful substances in glands located throughout its body. The types of glands vary considerably depending on the species of bee and how it lives. We'll take a look at the different types of bee and how they use the substances their bodies produce in the next section.

http://animals.howstuffworks.com/insects/bee2.htm 


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