Selasa, 24 Mei 2011

LEBAH MADU 3 - Siklus Hidup Lebah Madu - 蜜蜂的生命周期 - Life Cycle of Honey Bee

LEBAH MADU 3 - Siklus Hidup Lebah Madu - 蜜蜂的生命周期 - Life Cycle of Honey Bee

Developmental stages (life cycle)


Honeybee passes through 4 distinct life stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. The process is called complete metamorphosis.

  • Egg The queen bee lays a single soft white egg in each cell of the comb; the egg stage usually takes 3 days.
    • Embryonic queen Eggs destined to become queens are laid in a larger cell.
    • Embryonic drone Egg from which drone is going to hatch was not fertilized, thus, drones are haploid and carry only the chromosomes of the queen.
    • Embryonic worker
  • Hatching Egg generally hatches into a larva on the fourth day.
  • Larval MeSH Larva is a legless grub that resembles a tiny white sausage; the larva is fed a mixture of pollen and nectar called beebread; larval stage takes place during days 4 through 9; larvae undergo several moltings before brood cell capping and spinning a cocoon to become pupa. 
    • Larval worker Larval worker is fed a mixture of pollen and nectar called beebread
    • Larval drone Larval drones are fed royal jelly (a substance secreted from the glands in the heads of worker bees) and develop in a slightly larger cell than worker bees. 
    • Larval queen Larval queens are fed royal jelly only.
  • Pupa MeSH On the ninth day the cell is capped with wax and the larva transforms into the pupa; the pupa is a physical transition stage between the amorphous larva and the hairy, winged adult; the pupa does not eat. 
    • Pupal worker Takes about 282 hours (11-12 days).
    • Pupal drone Takes about 360 hours days (~15 days).
    • Pupal queen Takes about 6 days.
  • Adult
    • Adult worker Life span of worker bee is about 20-40 days in summer and 140 days in winter; worker bees are sterile females; during their adult lives worker bees undergo complex and drastic changes in behavior and physiology; the transitions are on only partly genetically predetermined and mostly are governed by environmental factors: they can be delayed, accelerated or even reversed depending on the needs of the hive. 
      • Hive worker
        • Cell-tending worker A young honey bee first 2 days after hatching who is responsible for cell cleaning and capping, and keeping brood warm. 
        • Feeding worker 3 to 11 days old honey bee who is responsible for feeding larvae and queen. 
        • Housekeeping worker 12 to 17 days old bee who is resposible for producing wax, building combs, and  food handling (packing pollen, recieving  and transporting nectar within the hive.
        • Guardian worker 18 to 21 days old bee who starts with ventilating and proceeds with guarding the hive's entrance. 
      • Field worker 22 days and older bee who is visiting flowers, collects pollen, nectar, propolis, and water; the onset of foraging coincides with most remarkable transitions in bee's life style: from relatively constant arrythmic activity to diurnality, from homogeneous to highly heterogeneous environments, from darkness to light, from crawling to flight, etc. Forager bees specialize in the collection of either pollen (protein) or nectar (carbohydrates). 
    • Adult drone Life span of drone is about 21-32 days in spring, 90 days in summer; it does not overwinter; drone is a specialized male bee who designed only for mating with the queen after which he dies; all living drones are therefore virgins. 
    • Adult queen life span of queen be can take up to 2 years and depends on amount of sperm which she recieved during her mating period. 
      • Virgin queen Newly hatched queen destroys any other unhatched queens, fights to the death any hatched queens, may destroy her mother, and then takes her mating flights.
      • Mating queen Virgin queen flies to a congregation area where hundreds or thousands of unrelated drones await; the drones pursue the queen and several mate with her in flight; of the 90 million sperm deposited by several males in the queen's oviducts, a mixture of about 7 million are stored in a special pouch in her body called the spermatheca; these sperm will be used, a few at a time, during the queen's life to fertilize her eggs; fertilized eggs laid by a queen become female worker bees and new queens; the queen also lays some unfertilized eggs, which produce the drones. 
      • Laying queen The laying queen secretes a pheromone that spreads from body to body among the worker bees and keeps them uninterested in reproduction on their own; the queen lays about 1500 eggs per day.

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