Serbuk Sari (花粉 - Pollen) merupakan karunia alam yang unik dan juga merupakan makanan dengan kandungan nutrisi yang sangat tinggi. Satu-satunya yang bisa menyaingi nutrisi Serbuk Sari (花粉 - Pollen) adalah air susu ibu.
Selasa, 24 Mei 2011
LEBAH MADU 3 - Siklus Hidup Lebah Madu - 蜜蜂的生命周期 - Life Cycle of Honey Bee
Honeybee passes through 4 distinct life stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. The process is called complete metamorphosis.
EggThe queen bee lays a single soft white egg in each cell of the comb; the egg stage usually takes 3 days.
Embryonic queenEggs destined to become queens are laid in a larger cell.
Embryonic droneEgg from which drone is going to hatch was not fertilized, thus, drones are haploid and carry only the chromosomes of the queen.
Hatching Egg generally hatches into a larva on the fourth day.
Larval MeSHLarva is a legless grub that resembles a tiny white sausage; the larva is fed a mixture of pollen and nectar called beebread; larval stage takes place during days 4 through 9; larvae undergo several moltings before brood cell capping and spinning a cocoon to become pupa.
Larval workerLarval worker is fed a mixture of pollen and nectar called beebread.
Larval droneLarval drones are fed royal jelly (a substance secreted from the glands in the heads of worker bees) and develop in a slightly larger cell than worker bees.
Larval queenLarval queens are fed royal jelly only.
Pupa MeSHOn the ninth day the cell is capped with wax and the larva transforms into the pupa; the pupa is a physical transition stage between the amorphous larva and the hairy, winged adult; the pupa does not eat.
Pupal workerTakes about 282 hours (11-12 days).
Pupal droneTakes about 360 hours days (~15 days).
Pupal queenTakes about 6 days.
Adult workerLife span of worker bee is about 20-40 days in summer and 140 days in winter; worker bees are sterile females; during their adult lives worker bees undergo complex and drastic changes in behavior and physiology; the transitions are on only partly genetically predetermined and mostly are governed by environmental factors: they can be delayed, accelerated or even reversed depending on the needs of the hive.
Cell-tending workerA young honey bee first 2 days after hatching who is responsible for cell cleaning and capping, and keeping brood warm.
Feeding worker3 to 11 days old honey bee who is responsible for feeding larvae and queen.
Housekeeping worker12 to 17 days old bee who is resposible for producing wax, building combs, and food handling (packing pollen, recieving and transporting nectar within the hive.
Guardian worker18 to 21 days old bee who starts with ventilating and proceeds with guarding the hive's entrance.
Field worker22 days and older bee who is visiting flowers, collects pollen, nectar, propolis, and water; the onset of foraging coincides with most remarkable transitions in bee's life style: from relatively constant arrythmic activity to diurnality, from homogeneous to highly heterogeneous environments, from darkness to light, from crawling to flight, etc. Forager bees specialize in the collection of either pollen (protein) or nectar (carbohydrates).
Adult droneLife span of drone is about 21-32 days in spring, 90 days in summer; it does not overwinter; drone is a specialized male bee who designed only for mating with the queen after which he dies; all living drones are therefore virgins.
Adult queenlife span of queen be can take up to 2 years and depends on amount of sperm which she recieved during her mating period.
Virgin queenNewly hatched queen destroys any other unhatched queens, fights to the death any hatched queens, may destroy her mother, and then takes her mating flights.
Mating queenVirgin queen flies to a congregation area where hundreds or thousands of unrelated drones await; the drones pursue the queen and several mate with her in flight; of the 90 million sperm deposited by several males in the queen's oviducts, a mixture of about 7 million are stored in a special pouch in her body called the spermatheca; these sperm will be used, a few at a time, during the queen's life to fertilize her eggs; fertilized eggs laid by a queen become female worker bees and new queens; the queen also lays some unfertilized eggs, which produce the drones.
Laying queenThe laying queen secretes a pheromone that spreads from body to body among the worker bees and keeps them uninterested in reproduction on their own; the queen lays about 1500 eggs per day.