Sabtu, 21 Mei 2011

PENYERBUKAN - 授粉 - Pollination

PENYERBUKAN - 授粉 - Pollination


Penyerbukan - 授粉 - Pollination

Penyerbukan, atau polinasi (dari bahasa Inggris, pollination cf. pollen, "serbuk sari 花粉"), adalah jatuhnya serbuk sari pada permukaan putik (雌蕊). Pada sebagian besar bunga, peristiwa ini berarti "jatuh pada bagian kepala putik". Penyerbukan merupakan bagian penting dari proses reproduksi tumbuhan berbiji. Penyerbukan yang sukses akan diikuti segera dengan tumbuhnya buluh serbuk yang memasuki saluran putik menuju bakal biji. Di bakal biji terjadi peristiwa penting berikutnya, pembuahan.

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penyerbukan         




Name the functions
Anther 花葯:
where pollen is produced
Filament:
the stalk of the stamen, which holds the anther in the right position
Stigma:
the part of the ovary where the ripened pollen has to fall
Style:
the long extension of the ovary that bears the stigma
Ovary:
the place where the ovules are formed
Seedbed / ovulum:
the body that develops into a seed when it is fertilised
Petal:
part of the corolla, which attracts insects (by colour)
Sepal / calyx-leaf:
protects the flower in its bud stage
Stamen:
the male reproductive part of a flower, consisting of the anther and the filament
Pistil:
the female reproductive part of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style and carpel
Footstalk / peduncle:
the small stalk that bears the flower in the right position.
http://cnx.org/content/m20480/latest/



Pollination - 授粉 - Penyerbukan


Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred in plants, thereby enabling fertilization and sexual reproduction. Pollen grains, which contain the male gametes (sperm) to where the female gamete(s) are contained within the carpel;[1] in gymnosperms the pollen is directly applied to the ovule itself. The receptive part of the carpel is called a stigma in the flowers of angiosperms. The receptive part of the gymnosperm ovule is called the micropyle. Pollination is a necessary step in the reproduction of flowering plants, resulting in the production of offspring that are genetically diverse.
The study of pollination brings together many disciplines, such as botany, horticulture, entomology, and ecology. The pollination process as an interaction between flower and vector was first addressed in the 18th century by Christian Konrad Sprengel. It is important in horticulture and agriculture, because fruiting is dependent on fertilisation, which is the end result of pollination.

Types

 Abiotic pollination

Abiotic pollination refers to situations where pollination is mediated without the involvement of other organisms. Only 10% of flowering plants are pollinated without animal assistance.[2] The most common form of abiotic pollination, anemophily, is pollination by wind. This form of pollination is predominant in grasses, most conifers, and many deciduous trees. Hydrophily is pollination by water and occurs in aquatic plants which release their pollen directly into the surrounding water. About 80% of all plant pollination is biotic. In gymnosperms,biotic pollination never takes place. These plants always exhibit anemophily that is wind pollination. Of the 20% of abiotically pollinated species, 98% is by wind and 2% by water.

Biotic pollination


More commonly, the process of pollination requires pollinators: organisms that carry or move the pollen grains from the anther to the receptive part of the carpel or pistil. This is biotic pollination. The various flower traits (and combinations thereof) that differentially attract one type of pollinator or another are known as pollination syndromes.
There are roughly 200,000 varieties of animal pollinators in the wild, most of which are insects.[2] Entomophily, pollination by insects, often occurs on plants that have developed colored petals and a strong scent to attract insects such as, bees, wasps and occasionally ants (Hymenoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera), and flies (Diptera). In zoophily, pollination is performed by vertebrates such as birds and bats, particularly, hummingbirds, sunbirds, spiderhunters, honeyeaters, and fruit bats. Plants adapted to using bats or moths as pollinators typically have white petals and a strong scent, while plants that use birds as pollinators tend to develop red petals and rarely develop a scent (few birds have a sense of smell).
Insect pollinators such as honeybees (Apis millifera),[3] bumblebees (Bombus terrestris),[4][5] and butterflies (Thymelicus flavus) [6] have been observed to engage in flower constancy, which means they are more likely to transfer pollen to other conspecific plants.[7] This can be beneficial for the pollenisers, as flower constancy prevents the loss of pollen during interspecific flights and pollinators from clogging stigmas with pollen of other flower species.[8]

Mechanics

Pollination can be accomplished by cross-pollination or by self-pollination :
  • Cross-pollination, also called allogamy occurs when pollen is delivered to a flower from a different plant. Plants adapted to outcross or cross-pollinate often have taller stamens than carpels or use other mechanisms to better ensure the spread of pollen to other plants' flowers.
  • Self-pollination occurs when pollen from one flower pollinates the same flower or other flowers of the same individual.[9] It is thought to have evolved under conditions when pollinators were not reliable vectors for pollen transport, and is most often seen in short-lived annual species and plants that colonize new locations.[10] Self pollination may include autogamy, where pollen moves to the female part of the same flower; or geitonogamy, when pollen is transferred to another flower on the same plant. Plants adapted to self-fertilize often have similar stamen and carpel lengths. Plants that can pollinate themselves and produce viable offspring are called self-fertile. Plants that cannot fertilize themselves are called self-sterile, a condition which mandates cross pollination for the production of offspring.
  • Cleistogamy: is self-pollination that occurs before the flower opens. The pollen is released from the anther within the flower or the pollen on the anther grows a tube down the style to the ovules. It is a type of sexual breeding, in contrast to asexual systems such as apomixis. Some cleistogamous flowers never open, in contrast to chasmogamous flowers that open and are then pollinated. Cleistogamous flowers by necessity are self-compatible or self-fertile plants.[11] Many plants are self-incompatible, and these two conditions are end points on a continuum.
Pollination also requires consideration of pollenizers. The terms "pollinator" and "pollenizer" are often confused: a pollinator is the agent that moves the pollen, whether it be bees, flies, bats, moths, or birds; a pollenizer is the plant that serves as the pollen source for other plants. Some plants are self-fertile or self-compatible and can pollinate themselves (e.g., they act as their own pollenizer). Other plants have chemical or physical barriers to self-pollination.
In agriculture and horticulture pollination management, a good pollenizer is a plant that provides compatible, viable and plentiful pollen and blooms at the same time as the plant that is to be pollinated or has pollen that can be stored and used when needed to pollinate the desired flowers. Hybridization is effective pollination between flowers of different species, or between different breeding lines or populations. see also Heterosis.
Peaches are considered self-fertile because a commercial crop can be produced without cross-pollination, though cross-pollination usually gives a better crop. Apples are considered self-incompatible, because a commercial crop must be cross-pollinated. Many commercial fruit tree varieties are grafted clones, genetically identical. An orchard block of apples of one variety is genetically a single plant. Many growers now consider this a mistake. One means of correcting this mistake is to graft a limb of an appropriate pollenizer (generally a variety of crabapple) every six trees or so.

Evolution of plant/pollinator interactions


The first fossil record for abiotic pollination is from fern-like plants in the late Carboniferous period. Gymnosperms show evidence for biotic pollination as early as the Triassic period. Many fossilized pollen grains show characteristics similar to the biotically dispersed pollen today. Furthermore, the gut contents, wing structures, and mouthpart morphologies of fossilized beetles and flies suggest that they acted as early pollinators. The association between beetles and angiosperms during the early Cretaceous period led to parallel radiations of angiosperms and insects into the late Cretaceous. The evolution of nectaries in late Cretaceous flowers signals the beginning of the mutualism between hymenopterans and angiosperms.

 In agriculture

Pollination management is a branch of agriculture that seeks to protect and enhance present pollinators and often involves the culture and addition of pollinators in monoculture situations, such as commercial fruit orchards. The largest managed pollination event in the world is in Californian almond orchards, where nearly half (about one million hives) of the US honey bees are trucked to the almond orchards each spring. New York's apple crop requires about 30,000 hives; Maine's blueberry crop uses about 50,000 hives each year.
Bees are also brought to commercial plantings of cucumbers, squash, melons, strawberries, and many other crops. Honey bees are not the only managed pollinators: a few other species of bees are also raised as pollinators. The alfalfa leafcutter bee is an important pollinator for alfalfa seed in western United States and Canada. Bumblebees are increasingly raised and used extensively for greenhouse tomatoes and other crops.

The ecological and financial importance of natural pollination by insects to agricultural crops, improving their quality and quantity, becomes more and more appreciated and has given rise to new financial opportunities. The vicinity of a forest or wild grasslands with native pollinators near agricultural crops, such as apples, almonds or coffee can improve their yield by about 20%. The benefits of native pollinators may result in forest owners demanding payment for their contribution in the improved crop results - a simple example of the economic value of ecological services.
The American Institute of Biological Sciences reports that native insect pollination saves the United States agricultural economy nearly an estimated $3.1 billion annually through natural crop production;[12] pollination produces some $40 billion worth of products annually in the United States alone.[2]
Pollination of food crops has become an environmental issue, due to two trends. The trend to monoculture means that greater concentrations of pollinators are needed at bloom time than ever before, yet the area is forage poor or even deadly to bees for the rest of the season. The other trend is the decline of pollinator populations, due to pesticide misuse and overuse, new diseases and parasites of bees, clearcut logging, decline of beekeeping, suburban development, removal of hedges and other habitat from farms, and public paranoia about bees. Widespread aerial spraying for mosquitoes due to West Nile fears is causing an acceleration of the loss of pollinators.
The US solution to the pollinator shortage, so far, has been for commercial beekeepers to become pollination contractors and to migrate. Just as the combine harvesters follow the wheat harvest from Texas to Manitoba, beekeepers follow the bloom from south to north, to provide pollination for many different crops.

Environmental impacts

Loss of pollinators, also known as Pollinator decline (of which colony collapse disorder is perhaps the most well known) has been noticed in recent years.[13] Observed losses would have significant economic impacts. Possible explanations for pollinator decline include habitat destruction, pesticide, parasitism/diseases, and others.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.life.umd.edu/classroom/BSCI124/lec21.html
  2. ^ a b c US Forest Department: Pollinator Factsheet
  3. ^ Hill, P.S.M., P.H. Wells, and H. Wells. 1997. Spontaneous flower constancy and learning in honey bees as a function of colour. Animal Behavior, 54: 615-627.
  4. ^ Stout, J.C., J.A. Allen, and D. Goulson. 1998. The influence of relative plant density and floral morphological complexity on the behaviour of bumblebees. Oecologia, 117: 543-550.
  5. ^ Chittka, L., A. Gumbert, and J. Kunze. 1997. Foraging dynamics of bumble bees: correlates of movement within and between plant species. Behavioral Ecology, 8(3): 239-249.
  6. ^ Goulson, D., J. Ollerton and C. Sluman. 1997. Foraging strategies in the small skipper butterfly, Thymelicus flavus: when to switch? Animal Behavior, 53: 1009-1016.
  7. ^ Harder, L. D., N.M. Williams, C.Y. Jordan, and W.A. Nelson. "The effects of Floral design and display on pollinator economics and pollen dispersal". 297-317. Editors, L. Chittka and J.D. Thomson. Cognitive Ecology of Pollination: Animal Behavior and Floral Evolution. 2001. Cambridge University Press
  8. ^ Chittka, L., J.D. Thomson, and N.M. Waser. 1999. Flower constancy, insect psychology, and plant evolution. Naturwissenschaften, 86: 361-177.
  9. ^ Cronk, J. K.; Fennessy, M. Siobhan (2001). Wetland plants: biology and ecology. Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis Publishers. p. 166. ISBN 1-56670-372-7.
  10. ^ Glover, Beverly J. (2007). Understanding flowers and flowering: an integrated approach. Oxford University Press. p. 127. ISBN 0198565968
  11. ^ Culley, Theresa M.; Klooster, Matthew R. (JAN-07). "The cleistogamous breeding system: a review of its frequency, evolution, and ecology in angiosperms". The Botanical Review
  12. ^ BioScience, April 2006, Vol. 56 No. 4, pp. 315-317
  13. ^ "What is the male, pollen-producing part of a plant called?". CNN. 2000-05-05. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  • Crepet WL, Friis EM, Nixon KC. 1991. Fossil evidence for the evolution of biotic pollination [and discussion]. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 333(1267) 187-195.
  • Dafni, Amots; Kevan, Peter G.; and Husband, Brian C. (2005). Practical Pollination Biology. Enviroquest, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9680123-0-7.
  • Labandeira CC, Kvacek J, & Mostovski MB. 2007. Pollination drops, pollen and insect pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Taxon 56(3) 663-695.
  • Sihag, R.C. 1997.Pollination Biology: Basic and Applied Principles. Rajendra Scientific Publishers,Hisar, 210p.

External links


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollination





授粉 - Penyerbukan - Pollination

授粉 (Shòufěn) 指的是裸子植物顯花植物把雄性配子,即花粉,從花葯傳到雌蕊的柱頭,使雌性配子受精的過程。80%的種子植物靠生物 (例如蜜蜂蝴蝶果蝠)傳播花粉,其餘則靠 (例如)、等媒界傳播花粉。

http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%8E%88%E7%B2%89




授粉

百科名片

授粉是被子植物结成果实必经的过程。花朵中通常都有一些黄色的粉,这叫做花粉。这些花粉需要被传给同类植物某些花朵。花粉的传递过程叫做授粉。

简介

根据植物的授粉对象不同,可分为自花授粉(self-pollination)和异花授粉(cross-pollination)两类。

自花传粉

植物成熟的花粉粒传到同一朵花的柱头上,并能正常地受精结实的过程称自花传粉。生产上常把同株异花间和同品种异株间的传粉也认为是自花传粉。
能进行自花传粉的植物称自花传粉植物,如水稻、小麦、棉花和桃等,豌豆和花生在花尚未开放,花蕾中的成熟花粉粒就直接在花粉囊中萌发形成花粉管,把精子送入胚囊中受精,这种传粉方式是典型的自花传粉,称闭花受精。

异花传粉

一般情况下即使是两性花,同一朵花的雌雄蕊也不会一起成熟,因而,一般花的雌蕊接受的花粉是另一朵花的花粉,这就是异花传粉。当然,雌雄异株植物,雌雄同株中开单性花的,就只有进行异花传粉了。
油菜、向日葵、苹果等是异花传粉的植物。

花粉

种子植物特有的结构,相当于一个小孢子和由它发育的前期雄配子体。 在被子植物成熟花粉粒中包含2个或3个细胞,即一个营养细胞和一个生殖细胞或由其分裂产生的两个精子。在两个细胞的花粉粒中,两个精子是在传粉后在花粉管中由生殖细胞分裂形成的。在裸子植物的成熟花粉粒中包含的细胞数目变化较大,从1~5个或更多个细胞,其中有1~2个原叶细胞,是雄配子体中残留的几个营养细胞,形成后往往随即退化,在被子植物的雄配子体中已完全消失。
各类植物的花粉各不相同。根据花粉形状大小,对称性和极性,萌发孔的数目、结构和位置,壁的结构以及表面雕纹等,往往可以鉴定到科和属,甚至可以鉴定到植物的种。花粉形态的研究可为分类鉴定和花粉分析中鉴定化石花粉提供依据,同时也为植物系统发育的研究提供有价值的资料。
大多数花粉成熟时分散,成为单粒花粉。但也有两粒以上花粉粘合在一起的,称为复合花粉粒。许多花粉结合在一起,在一个药室中至少有两块以上的,称为花粉小块。在一个或几个药室中全部花粉粒粘合在一起的,称为花粉块。花粉小块和花粉块主要见于兰科和萝藦科植物。
花粉粒在四分体中朝内的部分,称为近极面。朝外的部分称为远极面。连接花粉近极面中心点与远极面中心的假想中的一条线,称为极轴,与极轴成直角相交的一条线称为赤道轴,沿花粉两极之间表面的中线为赤道。在有极性的花粉中,可以分为等极的,亚等极的和异极的3个类型。花粉通常是对称的,有两种不同的对称性:辐射对称和左右对称。
花粉多为球形,赤道轴长于极轴的称为扁球形;特别扁的称为超扁球形;相反地,极轴长于赤道轴的称为长球形,特别长的称为超长球形。花粉在极面观所见赤道轮廓,可呈圆形,具角状,具裂片状等等。在赤道面观,花粉轮廓可呈圆形、椭圆形、菱形、方形等等。
花粉大小因种而不同,变化很大。最小的花粉见于紫草科勿忘草,约(4~8)微米×(2~4)微米。大型花粉直径为100~200微米〔姜属〕,120~150微米〔锦葵科的许多属种,以及牵牛,芭蕉属等〕。大多数花粉最大直径约为20~50微米。水生植物大叶藻花粉细长,约为(1200~2900)微米×(3.5~9.5)微米。
萌发孔为花粉壁上变薄的区域,花粉萌发时花粉管往往由萌发孔伸出。萌发孔按其长和宽的比例,通常分为沟、孔两类。凡长与宽之比大于2的为沟,不到2的为孔。有时短沟和长孔之间不易区分。只具沟或孔的为简单萌发孔,沟和孔共同组成的为复合萌发孔。萌发孔分布在极面,赤道面或散布于球面。分布于远极面上的单沟,又称为槽。萌发孔有许多变异,也有没有萌发孔的花粉。
花粉壁通常分为两层,即外壁和内壁。内壁的成分主要是果胶纤维素,抗性较差、在地表容易腐烂,经酸碱处理则分解;而外壁主要成分是孢粉素,抗腐蚀及抗酸碱性能强,在地层中经千百万年仍保持完好,所以研究花粉形态,主要依据外壁的结构。外壁又可分两层,即外层和内层。外层一般由3层组成,最外层为覆盖层,其上或具穿孔,发育不完全时,为具半覆盖层的或无覆盖层的花粉。下面一层为柱状层,具有柱状(或棒状)结构。再下面一层为基层。
花粉表面光滑或具各种各样的纹饰(雕纹)。纹饰的类型因种属而不同。主要的雕纹有颗粒状,瘤状,棍棒状,刺状,条纹状,皱波状,网状,脑皱状等等。
成分
蜂花粉以营养全面著称,被称为“全天然营养食品”、“浓缩营养库”。其主要食疗成分是:蛋白质、氨基酸、维生素、微量元素、活性酶、黄酮类化合物、脂类、核酸、芸苔素、植酸等。其中氨基酸含量及比例是最接近联合国粮农组织(FAO)推荐的氨基酸模式,这在天然食品中极其少见。蜂花粉富含蛋白质、氨基酸,其含量超过鸡蛋、牛奶的5-7倍,在营养学上被称为“浓缩营养库”。花粉中的不饱和脂肪酸有几种是人体不能合成的必需脂肪酸。同时也是一种天然维生素的浓缩物,含量很高,B族维生素丰富,而且对人体养颜有明显作用的元素也较为丰富。
古食谱《山堂肆考饮食卷二》中记载,女皇武曌(则天)正因为常食花粉,年过八旬尚红光满面,仍能精神饱满地料理朝政,由此可见花粉的妙用所在。

授粉方式

根据植物的授粉方式不同,可分为自然授粉和人工辅助授粉两类

自然授粉

又分为风媒、虫媒、水媒、鸟媒等。
风媒:靠风力传送花粉的传粉方式称风媒(anemophily),借助这类方式传粉的花,称风媒花(anemophilousflower)。大部分禾本科植物和木本植物中的栎、杨、桦木等都是风媒植物。
虫媒:靠昆虫为媒介进行传粉方式的称虫媒(entomophily),借助这类方式传粉的花,称虫媒花(entomophilousflower)。多数有花植物是依靠昆虫传粉的,常见的传粉昆虫有蜂类、蝶类、蛾类、蝇类等。虫媒花多具一下特点:
(1)多具特殊气味以吸引昆虫;
(2)多半能产蜜汁;
(3)花大而显著,并有各种鲜艳颜色;
(4)结构上常和传粉的昆虫形成互为适应的关系。
如马兜铃和鼠尾草。
水媒:水生被子植物中的金鱼藻、黑藻、水鳖等都是借水力来传粉的,这类传粉方式称水媒(hydrophily)。
鸟媒:其他如借鸟类传粉的称鸟媒(ornithophily),传粉的是一些小形的蜂鸟(Heliothrixau-rita),头部有长喙,在摄取花蜜时把花粉传开。蜗牛、蝙蝠等小动物也能传粉,但不常见。

人工辅助授粉

也简称人式授粉。农业生产上常采用人工辅助授粉的方法,以克服因条件不足而使传粉得不到保证的缺陷,以达到预期的产量。在品种复壮的工作中,也需要采取人工辅助授粉,以达到预期的目的。人工辅助授粉可以大量增加柱头上的花粉粒,使花粉粒所含的激素相对总量有所增加,酶的反应也相应有了加强,起到促进花粉萌发和花粉管生长的作用,受精率可以得到很大提高。
授粉后,花粉粒在柱头上萌发。随着花粉管的伸长,营养核与精核进入胚囊内。随后1个精核与卵细胞受精结合成合子,将来发育为胚(2n)。另1个精核与2个极核受精结合为胚乳核(3n),将来发育成胚乳(3n),故这一过程被称为双受精(doublefertilization)。通过随后双受精最后发育成种子

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