Selasa, 31 Mei 2011

LEBAH HITAM 1 - BANGBARA - Xylocopa - Carpenter Bee - 木匠蜂

LEBAH HITAM 1 - BANGBARA - Xylocopa - Carpenter Bee - 木匠蜂



Carpenter bee - 木匠蜂


Carpenter bees
Xylocopa violacea obtaining nectar
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Apoidea
Family: Apidae
Subfamily: Xylocopinae
Tribe: Xylocopini
Genus: Xylocopa
Latreille, 1802
Type species
Xylocopa violacea
Linnaeus, 1758

Carpenter bees (the genus Xylocopa in the subfamily Xylocopinae) are large, hairy bees distributed worldwide. There are some 500 species of carpenter bee in 31 subgenera.[1] Their name comes from the fact that nearly all species build their nests in burrows in dead wood, bamboo, or structural timbers (except those in the subgenus Proxylocopa, which nest in the ground). Members of the related tribe Ceratinini are sometimes referred to as "small carpenter bees".

Contents

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 Taxonomy

The genus was described by French entomologist Pierre André Latreille in 1802. The name is derived from the Ancient Greek xylokopos/ξῦλοκὀπος "wood-cutter".[2]

 Characteristics

Carpenter bees have large compound eyes
In several species, the females live alongside their own daughters or sisters, creating a sort of social group. They use wood bits to form partitions between the cells in the nest. A few species bore holes in wood dwellings. Since the tunnels are near the surface, structural damage is generally minor or nonexistent.
Carpenter bees can be important pollinators on open-faced flowers, even obligate pollinators on some, such as the Maypop (Passiflora incarnata), though many species are also known to "rob" nectar by slitting the sides of flowers with deep corollas.
In the United States, there are two eastern species, Xylocopa virginica, and Xylocopa micans, and three other species that are primarily western in distribution, Xylocopa varipuncta, Xylocopa tabaniformis orpifex and Xylocopa californica. X. virginica is by far the more widely distributed species.[3] Some are often mistaken for a bumblebee species, as they can be similar in size and coloration, though most carpenter bees have a shiny abdomen, while in bumblebees the abdomen is completely clothed with dense hair. Males of some species have a white or yellow face, where the females do not; males also often have much larger eyes than the females, which relates to their mating behavior. Male bees are often seen hovering near nests, and will approach nearby animals. However, males are harmless, since they do not have a stinger.[4] Female carpenter bees are capable of stinging, but they are docile and rarely sting unless caught in the hand or otherwise directly provoked.[5]
Many Old World carpenter bees have a special pouch-like structure on the inside of their first metasomal tergite called the acarinarium where certain species of mites (Dinogamasus spp.) reside as commensals. The exact nature of the relationship is not fully understood, though in other bees that carry mites, the mites are beneficial, feeding either on fungi in the nest, or on other, harmful mites.

 Behavior

Carpenter bee nest in a tree trunk

Carpenter bee gallery in a split piece of 2X4 wood

Carpenter bees are traditionally considered solitary bees, though some species have simple social nests in which mothers and daughters may cohabit. However, even solitary species tend to be gregarious, and often several will nest near each other. It has been occasionally reported that when females cohabit, there may be a division of labor between them, where one female may spend most of her time as a guard within the nest, motionless and near the entrance, while another female spends most of her time foraging for provisions.
Carpenter bees make nests by tunneling into wood, vibrating their bodies as they rasp their mandibles against the wood, each nest having a single entrance which may have many adjacent tunnels. The entrance is often a perfectly circular hole measuring about 16 millimetres (0.63 in) on the underside of a beam, bench, or tree limb. Carpenter bees do not eat wood. They discard the bits of wood, or re-use particles to build partitions between cells. The tunnel functions as a nursery for brood and storage for the pollen/nectar upon which the brood subsists. The provision masses of some species are among the most complex in shape of any group of bees; whereas most bees fill their brood cells with a soupy mass, and others form simple spheroidal pollen masses, Xylocopa form elongate and carefully sculpted masses that have several projections which keep the bulk of the mass from coming into contact with the cell walls, sometimes resembling an irregular caltrop. The eggs are very large relative to the size of the female, and are some of the largest eggs among all insects.[6]
There are two very different mating systems that appear to be common in carpenter bees, and often this can be determined simply by examining specimens of the males of any given species. Species in which the males have large eyes are characterized by a mating system where the males either search for females by patrolling, or by hovering and waiting for passing females, whom they then pursue. In the other type of mating system, the males often have very small heads, but there is a large, hypertrophied glandular reservoir in the mesosoma, which releases pheromones into the airstream behind the male while it flies or hovers. The pheromone advertises the presence of the male to females.[7]

 References

  1. ^ Minckley, R.L. 1998. A cladistic analysis and classification of the subgenera and genera of the large carpenter bees, tribe Xylocopini (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Scientific Papers, Natural History Museum, University of Kansas 9:1–47
  2. ^ Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 472. ISBN 0-19-910207-4.
  3. ^ U.C. Riverside Entomology Research Museum: "Carpenter Bees" Order Hymenoptera Family Apidae, genus Xylocopa
  4. ^ University of Kentucky Entomology: Carpenter Bees
  5. ^ U.C. Riverside Entomology Research Museum: "Carpenter Bees" Order Hymenoptera Family Apidae, genus Xylocopa
  6. ^ Salvatore Vicidomini (February 9, 2005). "Chapter 40 — Largest Eggs". Book of Insect Records. University of Florida.
  7. ^ Minckley, R.L., Buchmann, S.L., Wcislo, W.T. 1991. Bioassay evidence for a sex attractant pheromone in the large carpenter bee, Xylocopa varipuncta (Anthophoridae: Hymenoptera). J. Zool. Soc. London 224: 285–291

 External links




  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpenter_bee 






木匠蜂


木匠蜂
carpenter bee
膜翅目(Hymenoptera)木蜂科(Xylocopidae)昆虫。世界性分布。小木匠蜂属于芦蜂属(Ceratina),有金属光泽,长约6公厘。在干树枝特别是悬钩子属植物的枝上营巢,雌蜂先将枝掏空,然后充填以花粉,产卵于其中。并守护此巢直到最后一个蜂孵出。大木匠蜂属于木蜂属(Xylocopa),颇似熊蜂,但翅呈紫罗兰色,腹部无毛,在实心木内挖穴为巢。木蜂不产工蜂,颇似地花蜂。


http://baike.baidu.com/view/1716176.html  



Bangbara - Carpenter Bee - 木匠蜂


Bangbara
Bangbara Éropah (jalu X. violacea) keur nyeuseup sari kembang
Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Apoidea
Family: Apidae
Subfamily: Xylocopinae
Tribe: Xylocopini
Genus: Xylocopa
Latreille, 1802
Spésiés
baca téks
Bangbara (genus Xylocopa dina subfamili Xylocopinae) nyaéta nyiruan gedé, buluan awakna biasana hideung meles atawa wulung nu sumebar di sakuliah dunya. Aya kira 500 spésiés bangbara dina 31 subgenera[1]. Dina basa Inggris, ieu serangga dingaranan carpenter bee kusabab ampir kabéhanana ngaliang dina kai paéh, awi, atawa tihang (iwal subgenus Proxylocopa nu nyayang dina taneuh).

Daptar eusi

[témbongkeun]

 Ciri


X. tabaniformis jalu keur nyeuseup néktar

Sababaraha spésiés bangbara hirup saliang jeung anak atawa dulurna sasama bikang. Najan ngaliangan kai, tapi bangbara teu ngabalukarkeun karuksakan anu parna kusabab liangna déét. Bangbara kawilang penting pikeun penyerbukan sababaraha jenis tutuwuhan kembangan.
Di Indonésia, sahanteuna ya dua spésiés bangbara: Xylocopa confusa jeung X. aerulea[2].

 Paripolah


Bangbara bikang dina sayangna

Sacara umum, bangbara kaasup nu hirupna solitér, najan aya sababaraha spésiés nu nyayang babarengan atawa sayangna padeukeut. Mun aya sababaraha bikang sasayang, biasana sok aya babagi tugas: nu hiji ngajaga sayang, nu séjénna liar. Bangbara nyieun sayang ku cara ngaliang dina kai. Lawang asupna hiji, tapi ka jerona bisa nyagak. Bubuk kai urut ngaliang, lian ti dipiceun, ogé dipaké pikeun nyieun pinding antarsél. Liang dipaké sayang pikeun anak-anakna jeung pikeun neundeun néktar. Endogna kaitung badag dibandingkeun jeung bikangna, sarta minangka endog pangbadagna ti bangsa serangga.
Cara kawin bangbara aya dua rupa, nu bisa ditengetan ti conto jalu ti masing-masing spésiés. Jalu nu panonna badag kawinna ku cara néang bikangna atawa nunggu bikang nu ngaliwat. Nu hiji deui, hulu jaluna leutik, tapi dina mésosomana nyendul kelenjar nu ngaluarkeun féromon. Ieu zat kimia nu sumebar dina hawa téh bakal ngirut bikangna sangkan ngadeukeutan[3].

Bangbara Jepang


Bangbara Éropah (Xylocopa violacea

Bangbara dina kai

 Rujukan

  1. Minckley, R.L. 1998. A cladistic analysis and classification of the subgenera and genera of the large carpenter bees, tribe Xylocopini (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Scientific Papers, Natural History Museum, University of Kansas 9:1–47
  2. Lebah dan tawon penyerbuk di hutan tropis basah Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun dan distribusinya di Indonesia
  3. Minckley, R.L., Buchmann, S.L., Wcislo, W.T. 1991. Bioassay evidence for a sex attractant pheromone in the large carpenter bee, Xylocopa varipuncta (Anthophoridae: Hymenoptera). J. Zool. Soc. London 224: 285–291

 Tumbu kaluar


http://su.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangbara




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